kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment. A modern middle-class residential kitchen is typically equipped with a stove, a sink with hot and cold running water, a refrigerator, and worktops and kitchen cabinets arranged according to a modular design. Many households have a microwave oven, a dishwasher, and other electric appliances. The main functions of a kitchen are to store, prepare and cook food (and to complete related tasks such as dishwashing). The room or area may also be used for dining (or small meals such as breakfast), entertaining and laundry. The design and construction of kitchens is a huge market all over the world.

Commercial kitchens are found in restaurantscafeteriashotelshospitals, educational and workplace facilities, army barracks, and similar establishments. These kitchens are generally larger and equipped with bigger and more heavy-duty equipment than a residential kitchen. For example, a large restaurant may have a huge walk-in refrigerator and a large commercial dishwasher machine. In some instances commercial kitchen equipment such as commercial sinks are used in household settings as it offers ease of use for food preparation and high durability.[1][2]

In developed countries, commercial kitchens are generally subject to public health laws. They are inspected periodically by public-health officials, and forced to close if they do not meet hygienic requirements mandated by law.[citation needed]


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From https://theinteriorsaddict.com/:

Designer Susie Cohen on taking on “just a few wonderful projects each year”

July 16, 2014

While many would start their own interior design practice with the dream of becoming a household name, Susie Cohen has much humbler aspirations. “I am not striving to be prolific. I only take on a few wonderful projects each year and I love working in this way. It enables me to really enjoy the creative journey and it gives my clients a very fluid process.”


Home+Design is a multi-platform media brand that covers home, architecture, products, art and lifestyle stories throughout the state of California.[1] California Home+Design magazine is distributed quarterly. The audience for California Home + Design extends from Sacramento to San Diego and exceeds 600,000.

California Home+Design was founded in the mid-1990s by Sloane Citron and Elsie Floriani of 18media under the name of California Home & Gardens. In 2004 McEvoy Media, then Hartle Media, acquired a majority interest in the publication and changed the name to California Home+Design and californiahomedesign.com.[2] This act was later followed by the acquisition of Spin magazine by McEvoy Media.[3] McEvoy Media also produced 7×7 magazine and is a part of the McEvoy Group which also own publishing house Chronicle Books.

In 2014, McEvoy shut down the brand and sold it to a former staff member for a relaunch.[4]

Virtual home design software is a type of computer-aided design software intended to help architects, designers, and homeowners preview their design implementations on-the-fly. These products differ from traditional homeowner design software and other online design tools in that they use HTML5 to ensure that changes to the design occur rapidly. This category of software as a service puts an emphasis on usability, speed, and customization.[1]



Homeowners, contractors, and architects use virtual home exterior design software to help visualize changes to designs. Since virtual home design suites that use HTML5 are able to rapidly propagate changes to the home design, users can A/B test designs much more efficiently than with previous iterations of online design software.

Virtual home design software has found widespread usage among homeowners who have suffered property damage,[2] as server-side, HTML5-based design software is ideal for homeowners who wish to see what certain products will look like on damaged areas of their houses.


Several manufacturers use virtual home design software to display their products online. These companies that utilize virtual home design software include GAF Materials Corporation, James Hardie, Exterior Portfolio, and CertainTeed. Some companies, such as Design My Exterior, have built virtual home design software that is not limited to products or brands in order to allow for greater flexibility by the end-user. Design My Exterior also uses ImageMapster in order to generate a greater range of options with less processing time.

Live Home 3D is a virtual home design software for Microsoft Windows and macOS.

Future applications[edit]

Several companies are experimenting with virtual reality for architecture. They design virtual homes and allow customers to walk around with the help of a VR headset (such as the Occulus Rift). This way, customers get a realistic, true-to-scale idea of the end result.


From https://www.nataliejones.com.au/:

Natalie Jones is an Australian artist based in Sydney. She completed a Bachelor of Visual Arts, Bachelor of Education in 2002. As well as practicing as an artist, Natalie is the Head of Creative Arts at a college based in Sydney. 

Natalie’s art practice includes painting,  printmaking, ceramics and fibre art. Starting out as a painter and printmaker, Natalie’s large scale woven abstract pieces reflect her formal training as well as a fresh contemporary approach to traditional techniques.

About The Designers

Interior design is the art and science of understanding people’s behavior to create functional spaces within a building. Decoration is the furnishing or adorning of a space with decorative elements, sometimes complemented by advice and practical assistance. In short, interior designers may decorate, but decorators do not design.

Interior designer

Interior designer implies that there is more of an emphasis on planning, functional design and the effective use of space, as compared to interior decorating. An interior designer in fineline design can undertake projects that include arranging the basic layout of spaces within a building as well as projects that require an understanding of technical issues such as window and door positioning, acoustics, and lighting.[1] Although an interior designer may create the layout of a space, they may not alter load-bearing walls without having their designs stamped for approval by a structural engineer. Interior designers often work directly with architects, engineers and contractors.

Interior designers must be highly skilled in order to create interior environments that are functional, safe, and adhere to building codes, regulations and ADA requirements. They go beyond the selection of color palettes and furnishings and apply their knowledge to the development of construction documents, occupancy loads, healthcare regulations and sustainable design principles, as well as the management and coordination of professional services including mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and life safety—all to ensure that people can live, learn or work in an innocuous environment that is also aesthetically pleasing.

Someone may wish to specialize and develop technical knowledge specific to one area or type of interior design, such as residential design, commercial design, hospitality design, healthcare design, universal design, exhibition design, furniture design, and spatial branding. Interior design is a creative profession that is relatively new, constantly evolving, and often confusing to the public. It is not an artistic pursuit and relies on research from many fields to provide a well-trained understanding of how people are influenced by their environments.

Color in interior design

Color is a powerful design tool in decoration, as well as in interior design, which is the art of composing and coordinating colors together to create a stylish scheme on the interior architecture of the space.[21]

It is essential to interior designers to acquire a deep experience with colors, understand their psychological effects, and understand the meaning of each color in different locations and situations in order to create suitable combinations for each place.[22]

Combining colors together could result in creating a state of mind as seen by the observer, and could eventually result in positive or negative effects on them. Colors make the room feel either more calm, cheerful, comfortable, stressful, or dramatic. Color combination make a tiny room seem larger or smaller.[23] So it is the Interior designer profession to choose appropriate colors for a place in a way people want to look and feel in the space.[22]


An electric wire reel reused as a center table at a Rio de Janeiro decoration fair


Residential design is the design of the interior of private residences. As this type design is very specific for individual situations, the needs and wants of the individual are paramount in this area of interior design. The interior designer may work on the project from the initial planning stage or may work on the remodelling of an existing structure. It is often a very involved process that takes months to fine-tune and create a space with the vision of the client.[24]


Commercial design encompasses a wide range of subspecialties.

  • Retail: includes malls and shopping centers, department stores, specialty stores, visual merchandising, and showrooms.
  • Visual and spatial branding: The use of space as a medium to express a corporate brand.
  • Corporate: office design for any kind of business such as banks.
  • Healthcare: the design of hospitals, assisted living facilities, medical offices, dentist offices, psychiatric facilities, laboratories, medical specialist facilities.
  • Hospitality and recreation: includes hotels, motels, resorts, cruise ships, cafes, bars, casinos, nightclubs, theaters, music and concert halls, opera houses, sports venues, restaurants, gyms, health clubs and spas, etc.
  • Institutional: government offices, financial institutions (banks and credit unions), schools and universities, religious facilities, etc.
  • Industrial facilities: manufacturing and training facilities as well as import and export facilities.[24]
  • Exhibition: includes museums, gallery, exhibition hall, specially the design for showroom and exhibition gallery.
  • Traffic building: includes bus station, subway station, airports, pier, etc.
  • Sports: includes gyms, stadiums, swimming rooms, basketball halls, etc.
  • Teaching in a private institute that offer classes of interior design
  • Self-employment
  • Employment in private sector firms


Other areas of specialization include amusement and theme park design, museum and exhibition design, exhibit design, event design (including ceremonies, weddings, baby and bridal showers, parties, conventions, and concerts), interior and prop styling, craft styling, food styling, product styling, tablescape design, theatre and performance design, stage and set design, scenic design, and production design for film and television. Beyond those, interior designers, particularly those with graduate education, can specialize in healthcare design, gerontological design, educational facility design, and other areas that require specialized knowledge. Some university programs offer graduate studies in theses and other areas. For example, both Cornell University and the University of Florida offer interior design graduate programs in environment and behavior studies.

The Creator: Helen Edwards, Recycled Interiors

Interior Architecture is the design of a building or shelter inside out, type home that can be fixed. It can also be the initial design and plan for use, then later redesign to accommodate a changed purpose, or a significantly revised design for adaptive reuse of the building shell.[2] The latter is often part of sustainable architecture practices, conserving resources through “recycling” a structure by adaptive redesign. Generally referred to as the spatial art of environmental design, form and practice, interior architecture is the process through which the interiors of buildings are designed, concerned with all aspects of the human uses of structural spaces. Put simply, Interior Architecture is the design of an interior in architectural terms.

Interior Architecture may refer to:


A critical part in the evolution of interior architecture and design is sustainability and consciously thinking of the environment and the materials being sourced- energy use, site selection, water usage, and material selection (Leigh Bacon[5]). This sub-category of Interior Architecture focuses on finding creative and holistic ways of building new or retro fitting existing structures that have little to no impact on the environment. The eco-friendly movement became an important issue around the 1970s when the major energy crisis struck, making individuals aware of their contributions and what can be done to help lighten the impacts (BStone[6]). Sustainability in Interior Architecture has really taken off in the last few decades with the help and advancements of technology, discovering new materials and efficient concepts that still lend the aesthetically pleasing aspect of a design. In past years, when it came to eco-design it had a stale and lack of luxury, elegance, and overall design; which inevitably received the reputation of being a “hippies” style or way of living. This is far from the case today with the overall known importance of being environmentally responsible, having an abundant amount of material options, and wanting to withhold an aesthetic design. Sustainable design is now a preferred and desired way of thinking and building that has and will be an ever-expanding and growing field.

  • The art and science of designing and erecting building and their interiors as a licensed architect and related physical features.
  • The practice of an interior architect, where architecture means to offer or render professional services in connection with the design and construction of a building’s interior that has as its principal purpose human occupancy or use.[3]
  • A general term to describe building interiors and related physical features.
  • A style or method of design and construction of building interiors and related physical features.